What is PDA (Pathological Demand Avoidance)?

Pathological Demand Avoidance (PDA) is one type of Autism Spectrum Condition. People on the autism spectrum have difficulties with social interaction, social communication and restricted or repetitive patterns of behaviour or interests.

People with the PDA profile share one main characteristic; their avoidance of the everyday demands made by other people, due to their high anxiety levels when they feel that they are not in control. Hence the name of the syndrome: Pathological Demand Avoidance.

The main features of PDA are:
  • obsessively resisting ordinary demands 
  • appearing sociable on the surface but lacking depth in their understanding (often recognised by parents early on) 
  • excessive mood swings, often switching suddenly
  • comfortable (sometimes to an extreme extent) in role play and pretending 
  • language delay, seemingly as a result of passivity, but often with a good degree of 'catch-up'
  • obsessive behaviour, often focused on people rather than things. 
Children may sometimes be described as having 'challenging' or 'oppositional' behaviour. Parents describe life as 'walking on eggshells' and their child as 'Jekyll and Hyde'. PDA is not the same as ODD (Oppositional Defiant Disorder); PDA is a spectrum condition but ODD is not. Very different strategies are needed to support either. More information in my post The Difference Between PDA and ODD.

Many parents have still not heard of PDA despite the condition first being recognised by Elizabeth Newson over 30 years ago now. 'A lightbulb moment' is the phrase often used to describe how parents feel when they realise their child's behaviour is not down to 'bad parenting'.

The PDA Society is charity which provides lots of helpful information and resources about PDA - those involved with the charity are all parents of children with PDA. Their website is www.pdasociety.org.uk.

understanding PDA book

I'd thoroughly recommend that any parent having difficulty reads the books 'Understanding Pathological Demand Avoidance' by Phil Christie et al and 'The Explosive Child' by Ross W. Greene. Dr.Greene also has an amazing website at www.livesinthebalance.org with lots of free resources - it's not PDA specific, but it's a breath of fresh air to realise that you can change how you thought parenting should be.

If you happen to work with children like this, please note there are plenty of resources on the PDA Society website which will help you - try Education and Handling Guidelines or the home page of the PDA Society website at www.pdasociety.org.uk.

To find out more about our own personal experiences, please check out our 'About Us' page. If you are looking or more information on Pathological Demand Avoidance, why not try some of these, my most popular posts?

Ten things you need to know about Pathological Demand Avoidance

Does my child have Pathological Demand Avoidance?

The difference between PDA and ODD

Strategies for PDA (Pathological Demand Avoidance)

Pathological Demand Avoidance: Strategies for Schools

Challenging Behaviour and PDA

Is Pathological Demand Avoidance real?

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